Running west of Du Bois and Clarion now, and less than fifty miles from Ohio, we were out of the browns and well into the gold. If the quality of coal improves eastward, the theoretical quality of petroleum goes the other way. We took a iight off the interstate. Soon we were cruising on Petroleum Street, in downtown Oil City. We continued north. In the fifteen miles between Oil City and Titusville lay the N apa Valley of early American oil. It was a V-shaped, intimate valley, five hundred feet from rim to co-working space groningen river, and along its floor were oil refineries so small they were almost cute. They did not suggest the starry lighted skeletal cities of Exxon’s Baton Rouge Refinery or Sunoco’s Marcus Hook. They suggested Christian Brothers, the Beringer Wine1y, the Beaulieu Vineyard. One refine1y followed another. Wolf’s Head, Pennzoil. They stood beside Oil Creek, which was so named in the eighteenth century because petroleum dripped out of its banks and into the water. Indians had found it, three centuries before, to judge by the age of trees that were growing in pits they had dug to collect the oil in pools. The Senecas rubbed their skins with it. They may have used it for light and heat. The use of petroleum is old in the world. Workmen laid asphalt three thousand years before Jesus Christ. The first energy crisis involving petroleum was in i875 B.C. The first co-working space amsterdam oil spills were natural, and were not so large that they could not be cleaned up by bacteria that feed on oil. In i853, in California, a lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers reported that “the channel between Santa Barbara and the islands is sometimes covered with a film of mineral oil, giving to the surface the beautiful prismatic hues that are produced when oil is poured on water.” Always, it was found in seeps. Even until a few years after the Second World War, all Iranian oil fields were associated with surface seeps. The first well in Texas-1865-was drilled near a seep. A well in Ontario had been drilled six years earlier, and in the same summer the first commercial oil well in the United States was drilled in Pennsylvania by Colonel Edwin Drake-less than a hundred steps from Oil Creek.